# Statistical Tests and Linear Regression

This module provides an introduction to performing statistical tests of a hypothesis and implementing linear regression to make a prediction of a continuous variable. For implementing statistical tests, we will make use of the stats module of scipy and the statsmodels library. Here, I provide examples of performing a **Two-Sample T-Test** and a **One-Way ANOVA** and assessing correlation with the **Spearman** and **Pearson** methods. Other statistical tests use similar syntax. To undertake linear regression, we will use scikit-learn, which is explored in more detail in the machine learning module. Before attempting these examples, make sure your Python environment has the numpy, pandas, scipy, statsmodels, and scikit-learn libraries installed.

After working through this module you will be able to:

- Subsample rows from a dataset.
- Prepare data as input to statistical tests.
- Perform tests and interpret the output.
- Generate, explore, and assess a linear regression model.

```
import numpy as np
import pandas as pd
from scipy import stats as st
from statsmodels.stats.multicomp import pairwise_tukeyhsd
from sklearn.linear_model import LinearRegression
from sklearn.model_selection import train_test_split
from sklearn.metrics import mean_squared_error
import matplotlib.pyplot as plt
%matplotlib inline
plt.rcParams['figure.figsize'] = [10, 8]
```

## T-Test

In the first part of this module, I will use the "matts_movies.csv" data. I will investigate whether my brother has ranked different genres of movies differently. To begin, I first read in the data table as a Pandas Data Frame. We will primarily make use of the "My Rating" and "Genre" columns.

```
movies_df = pd.read_csv("D:/mydata/matts_movies.csv", sep=",", header=0, encoding="ISO-8859-1")
print(movies_df.head(10))
```

```
Movie Name Director Release Year My Rating \
0 Almost Famous Cameron Crowe 2000 9.99
1 The Shawshank Redemption Frank Darabont 1994 9.98
2 Groundhog Day Harold Ramis 1993 9.96
3 Donnie Darko Richard Kelly 2001 9.95
4 Children of Men Alfonso Cuaron 2006 9.94
5 Annie Hall Woody Allen 1977 9.93
6 Rushmore Wes Anderson 1998 9.92
7 Memento Christopher Nolan 2000 9.91
8 No Country for Old Men Joel and Ethan Coen 2007 9.90
9 Seven David Fincher 1995 9.88
Genre Own
0 Drama Yes
1 Drama Yes
2 Comedy Yes
3 Sci-Fi Yes
4 Sci-Fi Yes
5 Comedy Yes
6 Independent Yes
7 Thriller Yes
8 Thriller Yes
9 Thriller Yes
```

In order to mimic a sample from this larger population, I make use of the *.sample()* method to extract 30 samples for both the Drama and Action genres. Note that I am also setting a random seed in numpy so that I obtain the same random sample if I re-execute the code. I first subset out all records from each genre into separate data frames. I then subset out the samples.

The functions that we will use to perform the statistical tests expect data to be provided as **numpy** arrays. So, in the next code cell I convert the data frames to numpy arrays. I next use the *describe()* function from the stats module to obtain summary statistics for each group. The sampled Action movies have a mean rating of 6.64 while the Dramas have a mean rating of 7.66. Can this be considered statistically different? To assess this, we will use a **Two-Sample T-Test**. Also, note that the variance is different in each group. So, we will specifically use a **Welch's T-Test**, which does not assume equal variance between the groups.

```
mD = movies_df.query('Genre=="Drama"')
mA = movies_df.query('Genre=="Action"')
np.random.seed(42)
mA = mA.sample(30)
mD = mD.sample(30)
```

```
mAa = mA[mA.columns[3]].to_numpy()
mDa = mD[mD.columns[3]].to_numpy()
print(mDa)
print(mAa)
print(st.describe(mAa))
print(st.describe(mDa))
```

```
[7.1 7.95 8.45 7.86 6.59 7.94 6.87 7.03 7.44 6.93 9.47 6.84 8.52 7.95
6.43 6.55 9.35 7.67 7.73 8.23 7.23 7.1 7.48 6.68 6.24 9.75 7.34 8.43
9.39 7.21]
[6.02 6.76 8.89 7.21 5.35 3.77 7.33 7.55 8.72 4.82 4.46 8.9 5.03 7.48
6.73 6.73 5.86 9.18 7.23 3.18 6.76 7.01 6.03 7.84 7.06 7.34 5.84 4.51
8.13 7.33]
DescribeResult(nobs=30, minmax=(3.18, 9.18), mean=6.635000000000001, variance=2.3339982758620685, skewness=-0.409647590960622, kurtosis=-0.4053829710587875)
DescribeResult(nobs=30, minmax=(6.24, 9.75), mean=7.658333333333334, variance=0.9088626436781612, skewness=0.6692051986038903, kurtosis=-0.40339521648835763)
```

Before performing the test, I use **matplotlib** to create a grouped box plot to compare the central tendency and distribution of the two groups. Note that the interquartile ranges (IQR) overlap some and that there is a good bit of variability within the groups. So, it is not clear if there is actually a difference between the group means.

```
fig, ax = plt.subplots(1, 1)
ax.boxplot([mDa, mAa])
ax.set_xticklabels(["Drama", "Action"])
ax.set_ylabel("mean")
plt.show()
```

I am now ready to perform the Two-Sample T-Test. This function requires the two numpy arrays storing the values for each group. I also set the *equal_var* argument to *False* so that a Welch's T-Test will be performed and equal variance between groups is not assumed.

I obtain a **T-Value** of 3.11 and a **p-value** of 0.0031. Using an **alpha** of 0.05, we would reject the null hypothesis that the means between the two groups are not different because the obtained p-value is smaller than 0.05. We would favor the alternative hypothesis that the means between the two groups are different.

```
st.ttest_ind(mDa, mAa, equal_var=False)
```

```
Ttest_indResult(statistic=3.1125302908342998, pvalue=0.003104205237585028)
```

## One-Way ANOVA

In this section, I demonstrate the use of a **One-Way ANOVA** to assess for differences in the means of multiple groups. First, I extract out 30 samples from the Comedy genera and generate a numpy array of the ratings. Next, I create a box plot to compare the three groups: Action, Drama, and Comedy. Again, it is not clear if the means are different between pairs of the three groups.

```
mC = movies_df.query('Genre=="Comedy"')
np.random.seed(42)
mC = mC.sample(30)
mCa = mC[mC.columns[3]].to_numpy()
```

```
fig, ax = plt.subplots(1, 1)
ax.boxplot([mDa, mAa, mCa])
ax.set_xticklabels(["Drama", "Action", "Comedy"])
ax.set_ylabel("mean")
plt.show()
```

To perform the ANOVA test, the numpy arrays of the ratings for each of the three groups are provided to the *f_oneway()* function. For my samples, I obtain an **F-Value** of 7.93 and a p-value of 0.000685. This suggest rejection of the null hypothesis in favor of the alternative hypothesis that at least two of the groups have different means. However, ANOVA does not tell us which of the groups are estimated to have different means. So, I next perform a **Tukey-HSD** test as a pairwise comparison. This is accomplished using the *pairwise_tukeyhsd()* function from the **statsmodels** library. This function expects the data to be provided differently than the T-Test and ANOVA already performed. Specifically, it requires all of the values to be provided as a single array and all of the group names to be provided as a separate array. To accomplish this, I copy one array and append all of the other rating values into it. I then create arrays containing 30 replicates of the group names then append them to a single array.

The Tukey-HSD test suggests that the Drama and Comedies and Drama and Action genres have different mean ratings while the Action and Comedies do not. Note that a p-value of less than 0.05 and a confidence interval that does not include zero suggests to reject the null hypothesis.

```
anovaF, anovaP = st.f_oneway(mAa, mDa, mCa)
print(anovaF)
print(anovaP)
```

```
7.932685401667139
0.0006845063246528356
```

```
forTHSD = np.copy(mAa)
forTHSD = np.append(forTHSD, mDa)
forTHSD = np.append(forTHSD, mCa)
grpsA = np.repeat(["Action"], 30)
grpsD = np.repeat(["Drama"], 30)
grpsC = np.repeat(["Comedy"], 30)
grps = np.copy(grpsA)
grps = np.append(grps, grpsD)
grps = np.append(grps, grpsC)
print(forTHSD)
print(grps)
```

```
[6.02 6.76 8.89 7.21 5.35 3.77 7.33 7.55 8.72 4.82 4.46 8.9 5.03 7.48
6.73 6.73 5.86 9.18 7.23 3.18 6.76 7.01 6.03 7.84 7.06 7.34 5.84 4.51
8.13 7.33 7.1 7.95 8.45 7.86 6.59 7.94 6.87 7.03 7.44 6.93 9.47 6.84
8.52 7.95 6.43 6.55 9.35 7.67 7.73 8.23 7.23 7.1 7.48 6.68 6.24 9.75
7.34 8.43 9.39 7.21 8.55 6.78 6.15 6.87 5.73 5.34 4.87 5.96 4.66 6.77
7.47 6.09 5.48 3.83 4.01 6.74 6.03 7.87 7.35 5.23 8.21 7.57 6.38 5.8
6.28 5.83 6.54 8.23 9.25 7. ]
['Action' 'Action' 'Action' 'Action' 'Action' 'Action' 'Action' 'Action'
'Action' 'Action' 'Action' 'Action' 'Action' 'Action' 'Action' 'Action'
'Action' 'Action' 'Action' 'Action' 'Action' 'Action' 'Action' 'Action'
'Action' 'Action' 'Action' 'Action' 'Action' 'Action' 'Drama' 'Drama'
'Drama' 'Drama' 'Drama' 'Drama' 'Drama' 'Drama' 'Drama' 'Drama' 'Drama'
'Drama' 'Drama' 'Drama' 'Drama' 'Drama' 'Drama' 'Drama' 'Drama' 'Drama'
'Drama' 'Drama' 'Drama' 'Drama' 'Drama' 'Drama' 'Drama' 'Drama' 'Drama'
'Drama' 'Comedy' 'Comedy' 'Comedy' 'Comedy' 'Comedy' 'Comedy' 'Comedy'
'Comedy' 'Comedy' 'Comedy' 'Comedy' 'Comedy' 'Comedy' 'Comedy' 'Comedy'
'Comedy' 'Comedy' 'Comedy' 'Comedy' 'Comedy' 'Comedy' 'Comedy' 'Comedy'
'Comedy' 'Comedy' 'Comedy' 'Comedy' 'Comedy' 'Comedy' 'Comedy']
```

```
tukRes = pairwise_tukeyhsd(forTHSD, grps)
print(tukRes)
```

```
Multiple Comparison of Means - Tukey HSD, FWER=0.05
===================================================
group1 group2 meandiff p-adj lower upper reject
---------------------------------------------------
Action Comedy -0.206 0.788 -0.9943 0.5823 False
Action Drama 1.0233 0.0074 0.235 1.8116 True
Comedy Drama 1.2293 0.001 0.441 2.0176 True
---------------------------------------------------
```

## Correlations

In this section, I assess the correlation between the movie rating and release year. This assessment could be used to determine whether there is a pattern in my brother's ratings over time. For example, does my brother tend to rate newer or older movies higher? I will specifically explore correlation for all of the dramas in the dataset. So, I extract out all of the dramas then write the ratings and release year to separate numpy arrays.

The **Pearson Correlation Coefficient** can be obtained using the *pearsonr()* function from stats. This metric assesses for a linear correlation between two continuous variables. Here, I obtain a correlation of -0.028, which has an associated p-value of 0.685. This suggests that there is not a strong linear relationship between the rating and release year. Or, my brother's ratings for dramas do not seem to vary based on release year.

The **Spearman Correlation Coefficient** can be obtained using the *spearmanr()* function, which assesses for a monotonic relationship using ranks. Here, I obtain a correlation of 0.006 with an associated p-value of 0.914. This again suggests that there is not a strong monotonic relationship between the movie rating and release year.

```
mD = movies_df.query('Genre=="Drama"')
mDr = mD[mD.columns[3]].to_numpy()
mDy = mD[mD.columns[2]].to_numpy()
```

```
print(st.pearsonr(mDr, mDy))
```

```
(-0.022701968234130208, 0.6853270459162113)
```

```
print(st.spearmanr(mDr, mDy))
```

```
SpearmanrResult(correlation=0.006073936628682969, pvalue=0.9136784076967588)
```

## Linear Regression

In this last section, I will demonstrate implementing linear regression using scikit-learn. First, I will estimate average mean county temperature using the mean county elevation. I will then undertake multiple linear regression by predicting the mean county temperature using elevation, percent forest cover, and mean county total annual precipitation.

First, I read in the "high_plains_data.csv" file. These data represent environmental and climate data for counties in the high plains states. The climate data were derived from PRISM, and the land cover data were derived from the National Land Cover Database (NLCD).

```
hp = pd.read_csv("D:/mydata/high_plains_data.csv", sep=",", header=0, encoding="ISO-8859-1")
hp.columns =[column.replace(" ", "_") for column in hp.columns]
print(hp.head(10))
```

```
GEOID10 ID NAME_1 STATE_NAME ST_ABBREV AREA \
0 8053 8053 Hinsdale County Colorado CO 1123.212157
1 8061 8061 Kiowa County Colorado CO 1785.889183
2 8063 8063 Kit Carson County Colorado CO 2161.740894
3 8071 8071 Las Animas County Colorado CO 4775.291392
4 8073 8073 Lincoln County Colorado CO 2586.326731
5 8075 8075 Logan County Colorado CO 1845.045782
6 8079 8079 Mineral County Colorado CO 877.691373
7 8085 8085 Montrose County Colorado CO 2242.693513
8 8087 8087 Morgan County Colorado CO 1293.760087
9 8089 8089 Otero County Colorado CO 1269.475894
TOTPOP10 POPDENS10 MALES10 FEMALES10 ... TOTHH00 FAMHH00 TOTHU00 \
0 843 0.8 443 400 ... 359 247 1304
1 1398 0.8 687 711 ... 665 452 817
2 8270 3.8 4638 3632 ... 2990 2081 3430
3 15507 3.2 7948 7559 ... 6173 4095 7629
4 5467 2.1 3163 2304 ... 2058 1389 2406
5 22709 12.4 12924 9785 ... 7551 5064 8424
6 712 0.8 362 350 ... 377 251 1119
7 41276 18.4 20310 20966 ... 13043 9311 14202
8 28159 22.0 13898 14261 ... 9539 6969 10410
9 18831 14.9 9221 9610 ... 7920 5473 8813
OWNER00 RENTER00 per_for elev temp precip precip2
0 233 126 34.962704 3334.739362 1.410638 800.246066 8.002461
1 474 191 0.002120 1269.637288 11.159492 384.201797 3.842018
2 2151 839 0.021467 1348.005495 10.179698 435.414037 4.354140
3 4360 1813 11.687193 1834.354115 10.439925 424.757731 4.247577
4 1421 637 0.043238 1564.500000 9.573578 376.228555 3.762286
5 5277 2274 0.124509 1278.251592 9.749204 425.278696 4.252787
6 279 98 38.846741 3212.506757 1.830405 856.293446 8.562934
7 9773 3270 33.571025 2122.834667 8.327253 447.202160 4.472022
8 6525 3014 0.112152 1372.481651 9.731422 369.794908 3.697949
9 5471 2449 0.024750 1355.050926 11.780972 338.015001 3.380150
[10 rows x 157 columns]
```

I then use matplotlib to create scatter plots to visualize the relationship between temperature and the three predictor variables. Generally, there seems to be a stronger correlation between temperature and elevation in comparison to temperature and the other two variables.

```
sp1 = plt.scatter(hp.elev, hp.temp)
plt.show(sp1)
```

```
sp1 = plt.scatter(hp.per_for, hp.temp)
plt.show(sp1)
```

```
sp1 = plt.scatter(hp.precip, hp.temp)
plt.show(sp1)
```

I subset out the temperature data and predictor variables into separate data frames. I then split the data into separate training and testing sets using the *train_test_split()* function from scikit-learn. This function requires that both the predictor variables and dependent variable be provided. You must also specify the proportion of the data to maintain for testing. A random state can be specified to allow for reproducibility.

```
yvar = hp[["temp"]]
xvars= hp[["elev", "per_for", "precip"]]
X_train, X_test, y_train, y_test = train_test_split(xvars,
yvar, test_size=0.33, random_state=42)
X_trainElev = X_train[["elev"]]
X_testElev = X_test[["elev"]]
```

```
print(yvar.head())
print(xvars.head())
```

```
temp
0 1.410638
1 11.159492
2 10.179698
3 10.439925
4 9.573578
elev per_for precip
0 3334.739362 34.962704 800.246066
1 1269.637288 0.002120 384.201797
2 1348.005495 0.021467 435.414037
3 1834.354115 11.687193 424.757731
4 1564.500000 0.043238 376.228555
```

I next initiate a model and fit using the training data and only the elevation predictor variable. Once the model is fit, I can obtain the intercept and coefficient. So, the resulting formula is:

Temperature = 10.8 - 0.00219*Elevation.

I then predict to the withheld test data and use the results to calculate the **root mean square error** or **RMSE**. The model resultd in an RMSE of 2.66, which suggests that the predicted temperature is off by 2.66 degrees Celsius on average for the withheld counties.

```
lmMod = LinearRegression()
lmMod.fit(X_trainElev, y_train)
```

```
LinearRegression()
```

```
print(f"intercept: {lmMod.intercept_}")
print(f"coefficients: {lmMod.coef_}")
```

```
intercept: [10.80000493]
coefficients: [[-0.00219406]]
```

```
preds = lmMod.predict(X_testElev)
```

```
mean_squared_error(y_test, preds, squared=False)
```

```
2.658858018975682
```

I now fit a new model using all three predictor variables. This results in a fitted y-intercept and three coefficients, one for each predictor variable. The RMSE actually increases to 2.89, suggesting that including of the precipitation and percent forest cover variables did not improve the model performance in comparison to just using the mean county elevation.

```
lmMod = LinearRegression()
lmMod.fit(X_train, y_train)
```

```
LinearRegression()
```

```
print(f"intercept: {lmMod.intercept_}")
print(f"coefficients: {lmMod.coef_}")
```

```
intercept: [2.58132095]
coefficients: [[ 0.00113803 -0.20148305 0.0105595 ]]
```

```
preds = lmMod.predict(X_test)
```

```
mean_squared_error(y_test, preds, squared=False)
```

```
2.887478419012105
```

## Concluding Remarks

This short module provided a brief introduction to performing statistical tests and linear regression in Python. If you need to perform different tests, I think you will find that the syntax is very similar. The general workflow is to (1) read in the required data, (2) prepare the data so that it can be provided to the test of interest, (3) implement the test, and (4) interpret the results. It is important to note that most tests have assumptions that should be evaluated to make sure the results are not misleading. We will further explore predictive modeling using scikit-learn in the machine learning module.